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Is antimony used in PET?

What is Acetaldehyde (AA) found in PET bottles?

Do ENSO Bottles Leach Chemicals?

Do ENSO bottles have BPA?

Are there phthalates found in ENSO bottles?

Does the ENSO additive have any known cancer causing compounds?

What if I put your plastic in the microwave?

Will an ENSO bottle leach chemicals if left in a hot vehicle?

Do PET bottles leach Benzene?

What is Benzene and is it harmful to humans?

Is antimony used in PET?

Antimony trioxide (ATO) is a compound of antimony that is used in small amounts as a catalyst for the manufacture of PET.  Antimony trioxide occurs naturally or can be prepared synthetically from antimony ores.  Antimony compounds are widely used in paint pigments, ceramics, glass, rubber, plastics and even medicines.  Antimony is chemically bound into the PET polymer.  In normal use of PET there is no leaching of antimony into the beverage.  If antimony is ingested it is believed to not be carcinogenic but is if inhaled into the lungs. 

PET has been used for food and beverage containers for nearly 30 years without any known incidences of causing adverse effects, and is approved as safe for contact with foodstuffs and drinks by the FDA.  Extensive testing of PET and PET packaging has repeatedly shown it to be of very low toxicity.  The amounts of antimony found in PET-bottled water are insignificant and do not pose any health concern.

What is Acetaldehyde (AA) found in PET bottles?

Acetaldehyde (AA) is a degradation byproduct formed when PET is melted and is believed to affect the taste of the product.  There are two ways a PET bottle can have AA, one being that if the resin is not processed properly then AA will be found in the resin.  This was more of an issue in the early days of PET but is not so much an issue now due to the demand of the water bottling companies demanding low AA levels.

AA is more of a problem with the blow and fill manufactures because AA is typically dissipated from the bottle within 72 from the blowing process.  The manufactures must watch the molding process to make sure they do not over dwelling or overturning the material in the screw which both creates AA (overprocessing the PET resin).

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Do ENSO Bottles Leach Chemicals?/strong>

Migration (leaching) tests have been performed on ENSO Bottles under FDA Title 21 CFR 177.1630 Substances for Use as Basic Component of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces and are compliant with FDA CFR 177.1630 conditions f, g and i.

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Do ENSO bottles have BPA?/strong>

Bisphenol A, commonly abbreviated as BPA, is an organic compound with two phenol functional groups. It is a difunctional building block of several important plastics and plastic additives.  It is an important monomer in the production of polycarbonate.

Suspected of being hazardous to humans since the 1930s, concerns about the use of bisphenol A in consumer products were regularly reported in the news media in 2008 after several governments issued reports questioning its safety, and some retailers removed products made of it from their shelves.

It is a common misunderstanding that BPA is found in PET bottles.  BPA is not used in the production of PET (#1) plastic and is also not found in ENSO bottles.

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Are there phthalates found in ENSO bottles?/strong>

Phthalates (pronounced “thal-ates”) comprise a large family of chemicals characterized by a benzene ring structure linked to two side chains.  Generally, the term phthalate is used to identify the ortho chemical configuration, where side chains arise from adjacent carbon atoms of the benzene ring.

Phthalate esters are the most common group of chemicals used as plasticisers (plastic softeners) worldwide, most frequently for polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics. Plastics containing phthalates are used in industrial and consumer applications such as electrical cable insulation, flooring, carpet backing, automotive parts, footwear, children’s toys and exercise balls.

Phthalates of this kind are not used in the creation of PET #1 plastic bottle.  Terephthalate is used as a plasticizer and has no known health risks.

Does the ENSO additive have any known cancer causing compounds? /strong>

No. All of the organic compounds contained in the ENSO additive are considered as safe plastic bottles for food contact and have no known adverse health effects.  The compounds are also not found on the toxic and potentially harmful substance list of CA Prop 65.  This State of California legislation identifies certain toxic and potentially harmful substances and provides limitations for their use. No products used in the ENSO additive are listed in Prop 65.

What if I put your plastic in the microwave? /strong>

There are no known health risks with placing ENSO or #1 PET bottle in the microwave. However, plastic bottles are typically very thin and can pose serious burn risks if the product contained in the bottle becomes hot.  It is also not recommended since there are no known reasons why it would be necessary to heat up such a bottle in the microwave.

Will an ENSO bottle leach chemicals if left in a hot vehicle?/strong>

No.  There are no differences in physical properties with ENSO bottle as compared with traditional PET.  Leaving a PET bottle in a hot vehicle will not leach chemicals but will affect the flavor of the beverage.  It is not recommended for either traditional PET or ENSO bottle to be consumed if left in a hot vehicle.   

ENSO bottles with the ENSO additive are approved for hot fill products.  Extended leaching tests verify that moderate temperature increases do not pose any leaching risks. 

A bigger concern would be the affect of heat and light to the liquid within the bottle.  Spring water and other liquids that have algae and natural organisms will begin to grow with heat and light, beverages with sugars will also be affected by the heat.

Do PET bottles leach Benzene? /strong>

 No, Benzene will not leach into the water.  However, Benzene can break off of the polymer chain and end up in the beverage from excessive wear of the plastic bottle. 

What is Benzene and is it harmful to humans?/strong>

Benzene is an organic chemical compound and a known carcinogen.  It is made of carbon and hydrogen forming a carbon ring and is commonly found in the environment.  It is a colorless and highly flammable liquid with a sweet smell and a relatively high melting point.

Outdoor air may contain low levels of benzene from tobacco smoke, wood smoke, automobile service stations, the transfer of gasoline, exhaust from motor vehicles, and industrial emissions.  Benzene can pass into air from water and soil surfaces. Once in the air, benzene reacts with other chemicals and breaks down within a few days.  Benzene in water and soil breaks down more slowly. Benzene in the environment does not build up in plants or animals.

When you are exposed to benzene in drink, most of the benzene passes through the lining of your gastrointestinal tract and enters your bloodstream.  Once in the bloodstream, benzene travels throughout your body and can be temporarily stored in the bone marrow and fat.  Benzene is converted to products, called metabolites, in the liver and bone marrow. Some of the harmful effects of benzene exposure are caused by these metabolites. Most of the metabolites of benzene leave the body in the urine within 48 hours after exposure.

Excessive exposure to benzene can be harmful to the immune system, increasing the chance for infection and perhaps lowering the body's defense against cancer.  Long-term exposure to benzene can cause cancer of the blood-forming organs.